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Fóti-Somlyó Nature Reserve

<p style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="FR">On the edge of the Gödöllő hills, the Somlyó of Fóti gives the impression of a real mountain, built up from pyroxenandesite tuff, freshwater and Miocene limestone, and loose and sandy Pannonian sediments. The area was once rich in forests. On the loess sediment of the northern slope, only a small patch of the final association of the loess succession is now found in the Tatar Shepherd's loess oak.</span></p>

Its protection is maintained by the currently valid Decree 50/2007 (X. 18.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management on maintaining the protection of the Fóti-Somlyó nature conservation area.

- The area was declared protected in 1953 by the National Nature Conservation Council by Resolution No. 1243/53. On the basis of Government Decree No 12/1971 (IV 1) of 18 Decree No 18 of 1961 on nature protection, the President of the National Nature Conservation Board classified it as a site of national importance by Decision No 2051/1975. The extension of the protected area and the declaration of part of it as a special protection area were made on the basis of Decree No 2/1988 (V 26) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the Republic of Hungary.

- Register number: 46/TT/53

- Extent: 282 ha

- Special protection: 105 ha

- Boundary of the municipality concerned: Fót

The herbaceous plants of the area are of interest. The specific microclimate of the steep northern slopes is the reason why the golden curlew has established without the presence of rocks. The only European rarity in the area was the highly protected southern dragon grass, but it no longer grows. The Pannonian, Pontic and sub-Mediterranean species are particularly numerous, and almost all the vegetation is made up of a large number of relict species that have preserved the relics of post-glacial warming.

József Szalkay, an eminent researcher into the butterfly fauna of the area, reported the occurrence of almost 650 species of large butterflies in a 1962 publication. The most important local occurrence of the Pontian butterfly, the Fóti's butterfly, described by Imre Frivaldszky from Bulgaria, is found here. The warm-loving, sub-Mediterranean rattlesnake is a great rarity. This also shows that Somlyó is a refuge for species with memories of warmer times.

All native lizard species are found in the area, with the exception of the common lizard. The most valuable is the Hungarian lizard, which is extinct throughout the country. The parlagi viper, a former inhabitant of the sandbanks, is presumed extinct. The birdlife is also rich, with all species of woodpecker except the white-backed woodpecker occurring in the area. There is also a small flock of wagtails on the hill.

The rich fauna, which is unique in the country, is the result of a combination of plants that influence the microclimate.

Main threats and specific conservation tasks

The forest community on the mountain has been almost entirely abandoned to agricultural activity. The afforestation of the mountain in previous years has changed the landscape by planting oak, acacia, holm oak, Scots pine and black pine. This has led to the impoverishment of flora and fauna.

A few years ago, the replacement of alien species began.

It is in the interest of nature conservation to maintain microclimatic conditions, to gradually increase the proportion of oak in the loessbush, and to allow rewetting of some areas.