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Dabasi-turjános Natural Reserve

<p style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="FR">In Europe, similar habitats have already been converted by agriculture, making it particularly important to conserve the near-natural habitat and the extremely rich communities of species living there.</span></p>

Its protection is maintained by the currently valid Decree 45/2007 (X. 18.) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry on maintaining the protection of the Dabasi-turjános nature conservation area.

- The area was declared protected in 1966, by the National Nature Conservation Office, by Resolution 1939/65.

- Classification as a nature reserve of national importance : pursuant to Government Decree No 12/1971 (IV 1) of 1 July 1971, implementing Decree No 18 of 1961 on Nature Conservation, by Decision No 2051/1875 of the President of the National Nature Conservation Office.

- The protected area was extended and declared a special protection area under Decree No 6/1987 (VII. 10.) of the National Park Authority.

- Registry number: 86/TT/66

- Extent: 148 ha, which is under special protection.

- Boundary of the municipality concerned: Dabas

Brief description of the protected natural assets:

The Duna Valley Drainage and Irrigation Association of Pest County received a legal permit for the construction of the main canal in the Danube Valley on 17 October 1912. The construction work, which dragged on for a long time, the many changes of plan and the uncontrollable flow of water due to its multiple uses, now known only as the Ditch Canal, did not drain all the areas.

The survival of the area is ensured by the waters that flowed down from the surrounding sand dunes after the migration of the Ancient Danube and by the periodic high groundwater levels above the impermeable former lake silt near the surface. On this bedrock, peat and mud formation has started in the depressions, while the highlands are covered with a small amount of quicksand.

The marsh grains (damp pools formed in the depressions between the sand hummocks) and the turján (a low-lying meadow with gently sloping hills) in the protected area near Dabas are reminiscent of the ancient lowland wetlands in decline. The canopy of the alder swamp forest is composed of alder and Hungarian ash, and the shrub layer is rich in dogbane and kányabangita. Among the herbaceous plants of the grassland level, the coastal sedge, the marsh sedge and the broad-leaved frogwort are noteworthy. Rare are the spiky spurge and the peat fern at the base of trees. In May, the frog lily blooms in great profusion on the forest canopy.

The greatest attraction of the area is the unrivalled wealth of rushes. The sandpits are the last habitats of the rarest orchids (basket orchids), and the area provides a habitat for ten orchid species, many of which are very rare.

In this area, on the vegetation of the waterholes, on the marsh dog-litter, lived (and perhaps still lives) a Hungarian speciality, a moth, the caterpillar of the Metelka bear moth. The moth was discovered by Ferenc Metelka, a pharmacist from Dabas, in 1859. Collectors' desire to collect and drain the species led to its disappearance (in 1941). In the meantime, new specimens have been found in the vicinity of Orgovány.

Among the birds of note are the protected species of great crested newt, ash-crested teal and harrier.

Main threats and specific conservation tasks:

The draining of the peat bogs and heaths of the Kiskunság in this century has changed its ancient character, destroyed its flora and fauna and spoiled its scenic beauty. The reed beds, the marshland, the meadows and the fauna have been destroyed. In their place, in the drained areas, barren salt marshes and dry sandy grasslands are taking over.

It is in the interest of nature conservation to prevent further water loss and to retain water. A further task is to reduce the use of fertilisers, which threatens protected values.