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Natura 2000 Network

<p class="Norml1" style="text-align: justify;"><span lang="FR">The most important instruments of European Union nature conservation are the bird protection (79/409/EEC) and habitat protection (92/43/EEC) directives. The common European system of nature conservation areas designated according to the provisions of the two laws is the Natura 2000 network. The goal of the Natura 2000 network is to protect significant endangered plant and animal species and habitat types at the community level, and through this to preserve biological diversity and ensure its long-term survival.</span></p>

Basis for selection

The designation is based on the lists of species and habitats specified in the annexes of the government decree, which contain plant and animal species and habitat types that are significant at the community level (these are the so-called "marker species", "marker habitats"). In Hungary, 46 habitat types, 36 plants -, 105 species of animals and 91 species of birds occur. The species and habitats can be of community importance or of special importance. The latter are highly endangered and their protection is a priority. The purpose of designating and placing areas under protection is to preserve the habitat and necessary living conditions of the stock and to ensure it in the long term through appropriate management and use of the area. The designation is based on a complex system of criteria, which takes into account several factors influencing the survival of the species or habitat type. Such criteria are, for example, the size of the stock found in the area, the extent of the habitat, any other protection (domestic, international ), and the relative value of the area in terms of the spread of the species is national, or at the community level. In general, it can be said that areas have been designated in which the given species or habitat has a significant population, both nationally and at the community level, and therefore the protection of the area is definitely necessary from the point of view of the survival of the species. The designated areas must cover a sufficiently large proportion of the national stock for all habitat types and species occurring in our country, so that the favorable nature conservation situation is ensured.

The selection process

The designation of the areas was partly based on previous scientific research and partly based on the results of data collection and scientific research directly for the designation of the Natura 2000 network. The proposal for the area designation was developed by the national park directorates. The proposal became final after joint consultation with the Ministry of Environment and Water. The declaration of special bird protection areas is the responsibility of the Member States. The Commission only comments if the designation is incomplete. National proposals for special nature conservation areas are examined by the Commission in the framework of a longer procedure, where the area designation of each species and habitat is reviewed individually. If the coverage of individual stocks is not adequate, the Commission can also oblige the Member State to designate new areas. The relevant parcels of land were announced in the Hungarian Gazette in accordance with the provisions of the Government Decree. (No. 80, Volume II, June 16, 2005). In the 90 days following the announcement, anyone could submit comments to the relevant national park directorate if, in their opinion, a parcel of land did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the Natura 2000 network, or if they were aware of a parcel of land that was not designated but met the criteria. The reporting period ended on September 14, 2005. The affected parcels of land will then be listed as a thematic layer in MePAR (agricultural parcel identification system).

The relationship of the Natura 2000 network with other protected areas

The designation is partly based on the already existing nature protection network, more than 90% of the previously protected areas have been included in the network, which together make up 39% of the Natura 2000 areas. The extent of the areas declared in the government decree is 1.95 million hectares, which is 21% of the country's territory. However, the Natura 2000 network does not replace, but complements the means of nature protection that have been used in our country before, namely national parks, landscape protection districts and nature conservation areas. In the future, the two systems will work side by side, complementing each other.

Special Bird Protection Areas and Special Nature Conservation Areas

Since the designation is based on two guidelines, the designated areas can be divided into two groups: Special Protection Areas (SPA) and Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and Special Areas of Conservation (SCA). . The areas designated under the two directives overlap by approximately 42%.

Special Bird Protection Area 275/2004. (X. 8.) According to § 2 f) of Government Decree, an area with significant natural values ​​from a community point of view, in which bird species of community importance as defined in Annex 1. A) of the decree, as well as migratory bird species defined in Annex 1. B) are significant stock and habitat, with particular regard to wetlands of international importance and other wetlands.

Special Nature Conservation Area pursuant to 275/2004. (X. 8.) According to § 2 g) of Government Decree, an area with significant natural values ​​from a community point of view, which is a significant stock and habitat of the species specified in Annexes 2. A) and 3. A) of the decree, as well as the 4. There is a habitat type defined in Annex A) that is significant from a community point of view.

Nature Conservation Area of ​​Special Importance according to 275/2004. (X. 8.) According to § 2 h) of the Government Decree, an area with characteristic, community-wide significant natural value, in which, in addition to the species and habitats included in point g) of the decree, the community-wide, 2. B) and 3. There is a significant population or habitat of a species defined in Annex B) or a community habitat type of special importance defined in Annex B) 4.

By the end of 2002, 61 protected natural areas in 23 European countries had won the Diploma. The size of the awarded areas and the habitat types found there are extremely diverse. Examples include the Krimml waterfall in Austria, the peat bogs of the Wurzacher Ried Nature Reserve in Germany, and the huge Sarek and Padjelanta National Parks in Sweden. Primeval forests such as the Bialowieza National Park in Poland, islands such as the Montecristo Nature Reserve in Italy, the wetlands of the Donana National Park in Spain, the alpine landscapes of the French Ecrins National Park, and paleontological sites such as Ipolytarnóc.